What Happens When Bone Regeneration Goes Wrong

What Happens When Bone Regeneration Goes Wrong

Your skeleton has the difficult task of being
strong and hard enough to hold your whole body up, but bendy and shock-absorbing enough
not to break upon minor impact. So when something goes wrong in the bone-forming
process, your bones can get weaker and the results can be shattering. Under a microscope, healthy bone looks like
a honeycomb. It’s a matrix of flexible collagen protein
with harder minerals, calcium and phosphate, laid down on top—so it naturally has little
gaps in it. But if something interrupts the formation
of healthy bone, those gaps get bigger, like in osteoporosis, which literally means ‘porous
bone’. My name is Dr. Suneela Vegunta. I am one of the women’s health providers here
at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona. I have been here at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona
for almost nine years now. We see patients with a lot of women’s health
problems, and osteoporosis is a very common women’s health problem. Your bones are a living, dynamic tissue, constantly
regenerating themselves to stay healthy. This is called bone remodeling, and occurs
throughout our entire lives—in fact, about every ten years, your entire skeleton has
been replaced with new, healthy bone … Thanks to specialized cells. One is the bone chewing cell, which is called
the osteoclast, which chews up the bone, and it chews up the old bone. As the old bone is being chewed up and being
absorbed, the new bone is being formed by a different type of cell called osteoblast. So this process is usually coupled. They go hand-in-hand. A few essential ingredients are necessary
to keep this bone-forming process in balance, mainly calcium. Your whole body relies on calcium in some
form or another, so if you’re not consuming enough of it, your body will cannibalize the
calcium it needs…from your bones. So let’s say that they are low blood calcium
levels, and calcium is essential for muscle metabolism. So heart being a muscle, the heart is essentially
muscle, in order to stabilize the calcium levels, the calcium can be pulled from the
bone. So if there’s not enough calcium or adequate
amount of calcium, the bone formation process can be hampered or impaired. And that impairment is what can lead to osteoporosis. Now, while calcium is definitely an essential
ingredient, other key ingredients are just as important. So not only just calcium, you know, there
are other things that actually affect bone density nutrition-wise, like vitamin D. Vitamin
D is essential for absorption of calcium and phosphate in the gut. And all kinds of things can impair your body’s
absorption of calcium: too much protein, too much salt, too much caffeine, or too much
acid in your diet can all block the absorption of calcium for use in building healthy bones. So can habits that are bad for your body in
many ways, like smoking. It impairs the osteoblastic activity, whereas
the bone chewing part or the osteoclastic activity continues, so they can actually cause
the uncoupling that we were talking about. So avoiding all of those things and following
healthy life habits will be very helpful. But bone loss can occur because of factors
beyond our control as well. Like aging, and what hormones we have less
of as we age. So an osteoporotic bone, if you look at a
normal bone which has normal bone density, the trabeculae or the holes between the matrix,
are much smaller compared to an osteoporotic bone where there’s less matrix and the pores
are much bigger, making it very fragile and easy to fracture. And here’s the thing: until your bone fractures
when it shouldn’t, you don’t know that you have osteoporosis. There are absolutely no symptoms for osteoporosis. So the first symptom of an osteoporosis
can be a fracture. These are called fragility fractures. So a woman can actually fall from a standing
height or even, you know, not even no trauma, just spontaneous fractures. That’s why screening is very important in
high-risk women to diagnose if they have osteoporosis and to intervene in a timely fashion. Because when it comes to bone loss…sex matters. Just to reiterate, sex steroids are very helpful
for bone formation, especially estrogen in women, is helpful for bone formation and even
absorption of calcium from the gut. Women typically have lower bone density and
muscle mass than men to begin with—that’s just one of the ways sexual dimorphism expresses
itself in our species. That, plus the sex hormone component, means
that women, especially as they age, are more prone to osteoporosis and fragile bones in
a way that most men are not. Around menopause, the estrogen levels are
very low and it’s a state called hypoestrogenism, where there’s very low estrogen in the system. So that low estrogen by itself can actually
cause some deleterious effects on the bone. But we can do ourselves a huge favor when
we’re young by building our bone density up as much as we can, while we can. The peak bone density is reached around
ages 25 to 35, so we reach our peak bone mass by that time. So our health habits during this phase of
our life actually affects how much peak bone density we reach. While we can and should build up our bone
density in that peak bone-building phase, all hope is not lost if we want to take action
later in life. So I have seen in my practice many patients
improving their bone density with just purely lifestyle modifications. Vitamin D and C supplements, avoidance of
smoking and excessive alcohol, are all great ideas for building bone mass while young and
keeping your bones healthy later in life. And maybe … try to avoid going to space if
you can help it. You know, exercise is very essential for bone
building, bone formation, because exercise and especially weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening
exercises, they actually stimulate the osteoblastic activity where there’s more bone forming. You can actually see that in people who
travel to space like astronauts where there is no weight bearing. When they come back and reach Earth, they
actually lost 30% of their bone density because there’s no weight bearing in space. So that tells us that weight bearing is very
essential for bone building and bone formation.

97 thoughts on “What Happens When Bone Regeneration Goes Wrong”

  1. CBD, Coenzyme Q10, PQQ and other supplements have the effect of enhancing mitochondrial health and well being, which according to some researchers is a key ingredient in maintaining bone health. CBD most definitely helps protect mitochondria from degradation as explained by Dr. John Hicks in a few YT videos.


    A new study led by researchers from Penn's School of Veterinary Medicine reveals a mechanism by which these factors and osteoporosis may be linked. Damage to mitochondria—key cellular organelles and energy generators—leads to a surge in the creation of cells called osteoclasts, which are responsible for breaking down bone, the researchers report in FASEB Journal. They uncovered these effects in cells in culture as well as in an animal model.

    "In a normal individual, the process of bone degradation and rebuilding proceeds in a very balanced way, but in some people they somehow produce a lot more osteoclasts, and this leads to bone loss and osteoporosis," said Narayan Avadhani, a biochemist at Penn Vet and senior author on the work. "We show in this paper that, when mitochondrial function is affected, it not only affects energy production but also triggers a type of stress signaling that induces the overproduction of osteoclasts."

    Avadhani's lab has examined the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on a variety of phenomena, including cancer and liver disease. Here, in collaboration with the lab of Mone Zaidi at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, the scientists took a close look at how problems with mitochondria affected a type of immune cell known as macrophages.

  2. Wasn't there a study that said that milk wasn't even all that good for bones? Did I dream this? If not… This video confused me even more.

  3. 3:42 “There are absolutely no symptoms for osteoporosis”
    Literally 1 second later….
    “So the symptoms of osteoporosis are”
    Lol 😂

  4. Is it true that bones regrow stronger than before? I remember watching a video about a Monk that constantly broke his index finger so it would become strong enough to enable him to balance himself upside down with just that one finger. Is this true or a myth? I've never broken a bone in my 29 years so Idk the feeling personally.

  5. note: milk is acidic on the stomach & in the 80& 90 was a governmental push to help the overstimulated milk industry. hence why soy/almond is a healthier alternative :).
    PS I still drink regular but just sharing fyi

  6. Thank you for staying consistent with all of these amazing quality videos! I wake up at 5am (CT) everyday, and it's always really refreshing to see something I can watch, that I might actually learn something from. My days are brighter thanks to all of you! Keep up the good work!

  7. What about swollen finger joints?? My left middle finger & ring finger have both encountered periodic swellings in their respective middle joints for quite a while now, and it's starting to affect how I do my work..

  8. First I have to say this doctor is also ill bcz she have Apple Watch ⌚️ and this watch is dangerous for our healths

  9. The very same calcium that our bones need to stay strong is utilized to neutralize the acidifying effect of milk (milk is animal protein, all animal protein is inherently acidifying)
    Plus, you're not a baby, stop breastfeeding lol

  10. You should make a video on cross eyed people… I have heard it's quite severe even though it's underestimated and neglected. Not to mention that there's no comprehension of doctors about how patients feel due to it Maybe sensitise people a bit about it…

  11. Roses are red violets are blue
    This comment is over used

    And fortnite is too

    If you don’t sub to me I’ll lick your dog

  12. I'm surprised they didn't mention pregnancies as babies dissolve their mothers' bones to grow if she's not taking in enough nutrients.

  13. That don't work if fluoride has replaced the calcium. Fluoride is more toxic than lead. Too much fluoride will make bones brittle prone to cracking.

  14. Hi, thanks for watching! Check out more episodes of SICK: http://bit.ly/SICKplaylist and let us know what you'd like us to cover in the future!

  15. 3:45 "No symptoms…"
    3:47 " The symptoms…"
    Im not even sure if this lady is a real professional or just an actor reading a script

  16. OK, here's something you seem to forget, salt isn't as "dangerous" as people think and to say "too much salt" is pathetic imo, try looking into actual research into salt, and while you're there look into sugar and fake sugars too, you might be surprised, in fact I know you will… 🤦‍♂️💥

  17. sexual dimorphism?… no no no… this is 2019… all genders are equal at everything… how dare you insinuate that women can't grow as dense bones as men im grossly offended and this completely scientific demonstration hurts my feelings hence it is false and untrue…

    also there are hundreds of thousands of genders not just men and women bla blaa etc etc…

    the above argument was brought to you and paid for (with unearned taxpayers money) by the left wing of the political scale

  18. I’d love to drink a glass of that great calcium-loving drink, milk, however, it’s been expired since July 20th and it’s currently the 13th of August….


  19. She is not a nutritionist. You don’t build bones from calcium. You build bones via a complex process involving things like silica and magnesium.

  20. Deat Seeker, why did you show pictures of people consuming cows milk? Science has shown conclusively that the more cows milk one consume, the more brittle bones you haven. https://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015 Please stop perpetuating the myth that cows milk is good for bone health. I know you did not directly state any false information in this video, but the implication of the images is misleading.

  21. making your bones strong when you are young doesn´t make any sens when your bones are fully swaped every 10 years~ it would not hold till 80 when you build it with 25-30….
    you got some conflicting information there.

  22. Can we inject anything into the bone yes or no🤔 FILLING THE GAPS altering for space travel 🤔😂HITS JOINT WHAT 🤣

  23. Another bone issue you could cover is Fibrous Dysplasia. This is where the bone grows much too quickly and is weak because of it. I have it in my ear canal which causes the canal to narrow over time and I have to have the occasional operation to widen it again. However some people have it in their arms and legs and that can be pretty debilitating unfortunately.

  24. Sometimes Osteoporosis is overdiagnosed and treated for when the patient doesn't acutally display any reasons for the bones to be changing. With Age comes natural change of the bones. Just remember that. Sometimes the models for osteoporosis aren't accurate. There also really isn't much of an effective medical treatment for osteoporosis other than lifestyle change.

  25. K, but we know that drinking a mamma Cow’s milk is a bad way for humans to get calcium. It’s not natural, the cows are immediately impregnated again, causing pregnancy hormones to saturate the milk, it’s cancer promoting, it contains unhealthy saturated fat, it’s animal cruelty, bad for the environment, it’s even not a very absorbable source of calcium for our bodies, and at least a few other things that are unhealthy for us… it’s not right.

  26. I have this condition where my bones in my fingers were backwards.
    It makes waving easy and makes playing guitar like a piece of cake. Oh yeah also Obama was there.

  27. Note if you have your stomach removed due to stomach cancer you can no longer absorb calcium as much and can get osteoporosis

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